A Recent Bottleneck of Y Chromosome Diversity

A Recent Bottleneck of Y Chromosome Diversity

The Y chromosome right is pretty minimalist compared to the X, but it holds much more history. Mitochondrial DNA, which is inherited only from our mothers, is short and easy to sequence, so researchers have frequently relied on it to study human DNA, both in present populations and in old bones. But as DNA sequencing technology has improved, it has become progressively easier to sequence all the DNA that an individual carries. If said individual is a male, the resulting sequence will include the Y chromosome, which is inherited only from fathers. With more data in hand, researchers have been able to perform an analysis of the Y chromosome’s history, and they’ve found that its sequence retains the imprint of both the migrations and technological innovations that have featured in humanity’s past. Most chromosomes in the cell are present as two copies, which allows them to swap genetic material.

Mitochondrial Eve and Y Chromosome Adam

To support our nonprofit science journalism, please make a tax-deductible gift today. The location of a proposed homeland for the maternal ancestors of living humans in what is now the Kalahari Desert of Botswana, and their routes out as climate changed. A new genetic study suggests all modern humans trace our ancestry to a single spot in southern Africa , years ago. But experts say the study, which analyzes the DNA of living people, is not nearly comprehensive enough to pinpoint where our species arose.

The “Out of Africa” or “OA” Hypothesis pre-dated the work with mitochondrial Continuing research on mitochondrial DNA (and later on the Y chromosome) has​.

A Sardinian fisherman. Using DNA from men from the island, researchers have reconstructed a tree of paternal descent. When the overall population size does not change as is likely to have happened for long periods of human history , men have, on average, just one son. In this case, evolutionary theory predicts that for any given man there is a high probability that his paternal line will eventually come to an end.

All of his male descendants will then have inherited Y chromosomes from other men. In fact, it is highly probable that at some point in the past, all men except one possessed Y chromosomes that by now are extinct. All men living now, then, would have a Y chromosome descended from that one man — identified as Y-chromosome Adam. The biblical reference is a bit of a misnomer because this Adam was by no means the only man alive at his time.

Similarly, the theory predicts that all mitochondrial genomes today should be traceable to a single woman, a ‘mitochondrial Eve’. This woman, the researchers concluded, probably lived in Africa around , years ago. The finding provided evidence for the theory that modern humans evolved in Africa before migrating to other continents. Yet comparable studies later found that Adam, the common ancestor of the portion of the Y chromosome that passes from father to son, lived roughly , years ago.

Carlos Bustamante, a population geneticist at the Stanford University School of Medicine in California who led one of the latest studies, says that chance could explain the discrepancy between the ages of Adam and Eve.

Chromosome as a chronicler: Genetic dating, historical events, and DNA-genealogic temptation

More than 7 billion people live on this planet — members of a single species that originated in one place and migrated all over Earth over tens of thousands of years. But even though we all trace our family lineage to a few common ancestors, scientists still don’t know exactly when and how those few ancestors started to give rise to the incredible diversity of today’s population. A brand-new finding, made using advanced analysis of DNA from all over the world, sheds new light on this mystery.

By studying the DNA sequence of Y chromosomes of men from many different populations, scientists have determined that their male most recent common ancestor MRCA lived sometime between , and , years ago. It’s the first time the human ancestry has been traced back through the male line by sequencing the DNA of many entire Y chromosomes. And, it agrees reasonably well with previous findings about our female most recent common ancestor, made by studying DNA carried down through the human race’s female line.

For example, in mammals, the Y-chromosome is only found in males, and parts of it trace this Y-chromosome Adam to a similar time as the mitochondrial Eve, The term “negro” is irrelevant this dated in history reference.

Nonrecombinant portions of the genome, Y chromosome and mitochondrial DNA, are widely used for research on human population gene pools and reconstruction of their history. These systems allow the genetic dating of clusters of emerging haplotypes. A researcher can estimate the age of the cluster by multiplying this number by the mutation rate. The second method of estimation, ASD, is used for STR haplotypes of the Y chromosome and is based on the squared difference in the number of repeats.

In addition to the methods of calculation, methods of Bayesian modeling assume a new significance. They have greater computational cost and complexity, but they allow obtaining an a posteriori distribution of the value of interest that is the most consistent with experimental data. The mutation rate must be known for both calculation methods and modeling methods.

Age of Adam

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To date, just a single human reference quality Y chromosome, of European ancestry, is available due to a lack of accessible methodology.

Recently, researchers made waves with the announcement that they had found the mother of all sperm whales: that is, the female from whom all modern sperm whales are descended. The problem is, most people misunderstand exactly what the term means, thinking it means the very first female in a species. By examining 1, sperm whales across the world, researchers surmised that this magnificent matriarch arose sometime in the range of 10,, years ago.

Meanwhile, the fossil record of sperm whales places them back millions of years. Mitochondrial DNA, which is responsible for energy metabolism, is cordoned off from the rest of our DNA, sitting off on its own in its own container. Researchers believe that at some point early in our evolution, the single cell organism that is our oldest ancestor engulfed another bacteria, and eventually the two slowly developed a symbiotic relationship that continues to this day.

That bacteria became the first mitochondria. If you want to go all the way back to the actual biological Eve, you would have to seek out the ancestor of our mitochondria, says Roger Bull, a senior research assistant in the molecular biodiversity lab at the Canadian Museum of Nature. In nearly all multicellular organisms, mitochondrial DNA is passed down the matrilineal line from generation to generation. This fact is extremely handy for researchers, who can use these DNA biomarkers to trace back the matrilineal history of a species.

Alas, while mothers also pass their mitochondrial DNA to males, those sons cannot pass this DNA to their own children.

Y chromosome shows that Adam was an African

In human genetics , the Y-chromosomal most recent common ancestor Y-MRCA , informally known as Y-chromosomal Adam is the most recent common ancestor MRCA from whom all currently living males are descended patrilineally. The term Y-MRCA reflects the fact that the Y chromosomes of all currently living human males are directly derived from the Y chromosome of this remote ancestor. The analogous concept of the matrilineal most recent common ancestor is known as ” Mitochondrial Eve ” mt-MRCA, named for the matrilineal transmission of mtDNA , the most recent woman from whom all living humans are descended matrilineally.

Applying ancient DNA calibration, we date the Y-chromosomal most recent infer a second strong bottleneck in Y-chromosome lineages dating to the last 10 ky.

And our DNA also holds clues about the timing of these key events in human evolution. When scientists say that modern humans emerged in Africa about , years ago and began their global spread about 60, years ago, how do they come up with those dates? Traditionally researchers built timelines of human prehistory based on fossils and artifacts, which can be directly dated with methods such as radiocarbon dating and Potassium-argon dating.

However, these methods require ancient remains to have certain elements or preservation conditions, and that is not always the case. Moreover, relevant fossils or artifacts have not been discovered for all milestones in human evolution. Analyzing DNA from present-day and ancient genomes provides a complementary approach for dating evolutionary events.

Genetic ‘Adam’ and ‘Eve’ Uncovered

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During recombination, the corresponding (homologous) chromosomes line up and exchange segments, so the genome you pass on to your.

The information gathered allowed us to identify the ancestral founder haplotype 0A and to recognize 7 derived haplogroups diverging from 0A by mutational steps. We analyzed the Y-specific microsatellite mutation rate in father-son transmissions and we pooled our data with equivalent information in literature to obtain an average rate of 0. We could estimate that the 0A haplotype has an average age of 33, years minimum 20, and maximum 88, years.

Anthropological, archaeological, linguistic, odontological and genetic tools have been used to reconstruct the history of the peopling of America. As a result of this multidisciplinary approach it is generally accepted that the first settlers of America came from Southwest Asia at the time of the last glaciation by way of a Bering land bridge connecting both continents. Moreover, it has been proposed that the colonization of America took place in threesuccessive chronological events giving rise to Amerindian, Na-Dene and Aleut-Eskimo linguistic groups respectively Greenberg et al.

Genetic Adam and Eve did not live too far apart in time

Without a doubt, the Y chromosome is a popular topic in the genetics world. Not only does it play a role in biological sex determination , but it also gives us a unique window into the past. Like mitochondria, the Y chromosome has a special history buried in its DNA sequence that has been passed from generation to generation.

In ancestry testing, scientists look for patterns in our DNA that give us clues about where our ancestors likely lived. Over time, as DNA is passed from one generation to the next, small changes—or typos—naturally begin to accumulate.

In mammals, the Y chromosome plays the pivotal role in male sex production. Yet only three Y chromosomes have been completely sequenced to date—those.​.

Early Modern Homo sapiens. A ll people today are classified as Homo sapiens. Our species of humans first began to evolve nearly , years ago in association with technologies not unlike those of the early Neandertals. It is now clear that early Homo sapiens , or modern humans , did not come after the Neandertals but were their contemporaries. However, it is likely that both modern humans and Neandertals descended from Homo heidelbergensis. Compared to the Neandertals and other late archaic humans , modern humans generally have more delicate skeletons.

Their skulls are more rounded and their brow ridges generally protrude much less. They rarely have the occipital buns found on the back of Neandertal skulls. They also have relatively high foreheads , smaller faces, and pointed chins. The first fossils of early modern humans to be identified were found in at the 27 , , year old Cro-Magnon rock shelter site near the village of Les Eyzies in southwestern France. They were subsequently named the Cro-Magnon people.

The y were very similar in appearance to modern Europeans. Males were 5 feet 4 inches to 6 feet tall 1.

No, a Mitochondrial “Eve” Is Not the First Female in a Species

Your browser does not support JavaScript. Please note, our website requires JavaScript to be supported. Please contact us or click here to learn more about how to enable JavaScript on your browser. When did Adam and Eve live?

Studies re-date ‘Y-chromosome Adam’ and ‘mitochondrial Eve’. Now, two major studies of modern humans’ Y chromosomes suggest that.

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Authors: Lukas F. Mammalian Y chromosomes are often neglected from genomic analysis. Due to their inherent assembly difficulties, high repeat content, and large ampliconic regions, only a handful of species have their Y chromosome properly characterized. To date, just a single human reference quality Y chromosome, of European ancestry, is available due to a lack of accessible methodology.

To facilitate the assembly of such complicated genomic territory, we developed a novel strategy to sequence native, unamplified flow sorted DNA on a MinION nanopore sequencing device. Our approach yields a highly continuous assembly of the first human Y chromosome of African origin. Sequencing native DNA also allows to take advantage of the nanopore signal data to detect epigenetic modifications in situ. This approach is in theory generalizable to any species simplifying the assembly of extremely large and repetitive genomes.

Q-Line Locked-down, research-validated devices for applied sequencing applications. Consumables We offer a range of accessories to suit your specific experiments. Flow cells View.

How Creationism Taught Me Real Science 57 y-Chromosomal Adam

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